Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Decimator

void riscv_fir_decimate_f32(const riscv_fir_decimate_instance_f32 *S, const float32_t *pSrc, float32_t *pDst, uint32_t blockSize)

void riscv_fir_decimate_fast_q15(const riscv_fir_decimate_instance_q15 *S, const q15_t *pSrc, q15_t *pDst, uint32_t blockSize)

void riscv_fir_decimate_fast_q31(const riscv_fir_decimate_instance_q31 *S, const q31_t *pSrc, q31_t *pDst, uint32_t blockSize)

riscv_status riscv_fir_decimate_init_f32(riscv_fir_decimate_instance_f32 *S, uint16_t numTaps, uint8_t M, const float32_t *pCoeffs, float32_t *pState, uint32_t blockSize)

riscv_status riscv_fir_decimate_init_q15(riscv_fir_decimate_instance_q15 *S, uint16_t numTaps, uint8_t M, const q15_t *pCoeffs, q15_t *pState, uint32_t blockSize)

riscv_status riscv_fir_decimate_init_q31(riscv_fir_decimate_instance_q31 *S, uint16_t numTaps, uint8_t M, const q31_t *pCoeffs, q31_t *pState, uint32_t blockSize)

void riscv_fir_decimate_q15(const riscv_fir_decimate_instance_q15 *S, const q15_t *pSrc, q15_t *pDst, uint32_t blockSize)

void riscv_fir_decimate_q31(const riscv_fir_decimate_instance_q31 *S, const q31_t *pSrc, q31_t *pDst, uint32_t blockSize)
 group FIR_decimate
These functions combine an FIR filter together with a decimator. They are used in multirate systems for reducing the sample rate of a signal without introducing aliasing distortion. Conceptually, the functions are equivalent to the block diagram below:
When decimating by a factor of
M
, the signal should be prefiltered by a lowpass filter with a normalized cutoff frequency of1/M
in order to prevent aliasing distortion. The user of the function is responsible for providing the filter coefficients.The FIR decimator functions provided in the NMSIS DSP Library combine the FIR filter and the decimator in an efficient manner. Instead of calculating all of the FIR filter outputs and discarding
M1
out of everyM
, only the samples output by the decimator are computed. The functions operate on blocks of input and output data.pSrc
points to an array ofblockSize
input values andpDst
points to an array ofblockSize/M
output values. In order to have an integer number of output samplesblockSize
must always be a multiple of the decimation factorM
.The library provides separate functions for Q15, Q31 and floatingpoint data types.
 Algorithm:
The FIR portion of the algorithm uses the standard form filter: where,
b[n]
are the filter coefficients.The
pCoeffs
points to a coefficient array of sizenumTaps
. Coefficients are stored in time reversed order.pState
points to a state array of sizenumTaps + blockSize  1
. Samples in the state buffer are stored in the order:The state variables are updated after each block of data is processed, the coefficients are untouched.
 Instance Structure
The coefficients and state variables for a filter are stored together in an instance data structure. A separate instance structure must be defined for each filter. Coefficient arrays may be shared among several instances while state variable array should be allocated separately. There are separate instance structure declarations for each of the 3 supported data types.
 Initialization Functions
There is also an associated initialization function for each data type. The initialization function performs the following operations:
Sets the values of the internal structure fields.
Zeros out the values in the state buffer.
Checks to make sure that the size of the input is a multiple of the decimation factor. To do this manually without calling the init function, assign the follow subfields of the instance structure: numTaps, pCoeffs, M (decimation factor), pState. Also set all of the values in pState to zero.
Use of the initialization function is optional. However, if the initialization function is used, then the instance structure cannot be placed into a const data section. To place an instance structure into a const data section, the instance structure must be manually initialized. The code below statically initializes each of the 3 different data type filter instance structures where
M
is the decimation factor;numTaps
is the number of filter coefficients in the filter;pCoeffs
is the address of the coefficient buffer;pState
is the address of the state buffer. Be sure to set the values in the state buffer to zeros when doing static initialization. FixedPoint Behavior
Care must be taken when using the fixedpoint versions of the FIR decimate filter functions. In particular, the overflow and saturation behavior of the accumulator used in each function must be considered. Refer to the function specific documentation below for usage guidelines.
Functions

void riscv_fir_decimate_f32(const riscv_fir_decimate_instance_f32 *S, const float32_t *pSrc, float32_t *pDst, uint32_t blockSize)
Processing function for floatingpoint FIR decimator.
 Parameters
S – [in] points to an instance of the floatingpoint FIR decimator structure
pSrc – [in] points to the block of input data
pDst – [out] points to the block of output data
blockSize – [in] number of input samples to process
 Returns
none

void riscv_fir_decimate_fast_q15(const riscv_fir_decimate_instance_q15 *S, const q15_t *pSrc, q15_t *pDst, uint32_t blockSize)
Processing function for the Q15 FIR decimator (fast variant).
Processing function for the Q15 FIR decimator (fast variant) for RISCV Core with DSP enabled.
Remark
Refer to riscv_fir_decimate_q15() for a slower implementation of this function which uses 64bit accumulation to avoid wrap around distortion. Both the slow and the fast versions use the same instance structure. Use function riscv_fir_decimate_init_q15() to initialize the filter structure.
 Scaling and Overflow Behavior
This fast version uses a 32bit accumulator with 2.30 format. The accumulator maintains full precision of the intermediate multiplication results but provides only a single guard bit. Thus, if the accumulator result overflows it wraps around and distorts the result. In order to avoid overflows completely the input signal must be scaled down by log2(numTaps) bits (log2 is read as log to the base 2). The 2.30 accumulator is then truncated to 2.15 format and saturated to yield the 1.15 result.
 Parameters
S – [in] points to an instance of the Q15 FIR decimator structure
pSrc – [in] points to the block of input data
pDst – [out] points to the block of output data
blockSize – [in] number of input samples to process per call
 Returns
none

void riscv_fir_decimate_fast_q31(const riscv_fir_decimate_instance_q31 *S, const q31_t *pSrc, q31_t *pDst, uint32_t blockSize)
Processing function for the Q31 FIR decimator (fast variant).
Processing function for the Q31 FIR decimator (fast variant) for RISCV Core with DSP enabled.
Remark
Refer to riscv_fir_decimate_q31() for a slower implementation of this function which uses a 64bit accumulator to provide higher precision. Both the slow and the fast versions use the same instance structure. Use function riscv_fir_decimate_init_q31() to initialize the filter structure.
 Scaling and Overflow Behavior
This function is optimized for speed at the expense of fixedpoint precision and overflow protection. The result of each 1.31 x 1.31 multiplication is truncated to 2.30 format. These intermediate results are added to a 2.30 accumulator. Finally, the accumulator is saturated and converted to a 1.31 result. The fast version has the same overflow behavior as the standard version and provides less precision since it discards the low 32 bits of each multiplication result. In order to avoid overflows completely the input signal must be scaled down by log2(numTaps) bits (where log2 is read as log to the base 2).
 Parameters
S – [in] points to an instance of the Q31 FIR decimator structure
pSrc – [in] points to the block of input data
pDst – [out] points to the block of output data
blockSize – [in] number of samples to process
 Returns
none

riscv_status riscv_fir_decimate_init_f32(riscv_fir_decimate_instance_f32 *S, uint16_t numTaps, uint8_t M, const float32_t *pCoeffs, float32_t *pState, uint32_t blockSize)
Initialization function for the floatingpoint FIR decimator.
 Details
pCoeffs
points to the array of filter coefficients stored in time reversed order:pState
points to the array of state variables.pState
is of lengthnumTaps+blockSize1
words whereblockSize
is the number of input samples passed toriscv_fir_decimate_f32()
.M
is the decimation factor.
 Parameters
S – [inout] points to an instance of the floatingpoint FIR decimator structure
numTaps – [in] number of coefficients in the filter
M – [in] decimation factor
pCoeffs – [in] points to the filter coefficients
pState – [in] points to the state buffer
blockSize – [in] number of input samples to process per call
 Returns
execution status
RISCV_MATH_SUCCESS : Operation successful
RISCV_MATH_LENGTH_ERROR :
blockSize
is not a multiple ofM

riscv_status riscv_fir_decimate_init_q15(riscv_fir_decimate_instance_q15 *S, uint16_t numTaps, uint8_t M, const q15_t *pCoeffs, q15_t *pState, uint32_t blockSize)
Initialization function for the Q15 FIR decimator.
 Details
pCoeffs
points to the array of filter coefficients stored in time reversed order:pState
points to the array of state variables.pState
is of lengthnumTaps+blockSize1
words whereblockSize
is the number of input samples to the callriscv_fir_decimate_q15()
.M
is the decimation factor.
 Parameters
S – [inout] points to an instance of the Q15 FIR decimator structure
numTaps – [in] number of coefficients in the filter
M – [in] decimation factor
pCoeffs – [in] points to the filter coefficients
pState – [in] points to the state buffer
blockSize – [in] number of input samples to process
 Returns
execution status
RISCV_MATH_SUCCESS : Operation successful
RISCV_MATH_LENGTH_ERROR :
blockSize
is not a multiple ofM

riscv_status riscv_fir_decimate_init_q31(riscv_fir_decimate_instance_q31 *S, uint16_t numTaps, uint8_t M, const q31_t *pCoeffs, q31_t *pState, uint32_t blockSize)
Initialization function for the Q31 FIR decimator.
 Details
pCoeffs
points to the array of filter coefficients stored in time reversed order:pState
points to the array of state variables.pState
is of lengthnumTaps+blockSize1
words whereblockSize
is the number of input samples passed toriscv_fir_decimate_q31()
.M
is the decimation factor.
 Parameters
S – [inout] points to an instance of the Q31 FIR decimator structure
numTaps – [in] number of coefficients in the filter
M – [in] decimation factor
pCoeffs – [in] points to the filter coefficients
pState – [in] points to the state buffer
blockSize – [in] number of input samples to process
 Returns
execution status
RISCV_MATH_SUCCESS : Operation successful
RISCV_MATH_LENGTH_ERROR :
blockSize
is not a multiple ofM

void riscv_fir_decimate_q15(const riscv_fir_decimate_instance_q15 *S, const q15_t *pSrc, q15_t *pDst, uint32_t blockSize)
Processing function for the Q15 FIR decimator.
Remark
Refer to riscv_fir_decimate_fast_q15() for a faster but less precise implementation of this function.
 Scaling and Overflow Behavior
The function is implemented using a 64bit internal accumulator. Both coefficients and state variables are represented in 1.15 format and multiplications yield a 2.30 result. The 2.30 intermediate results are accumulated in a 64bit accumulator in 34.30 format. There is no risk of internal overflow with this approach and the full precision of intermediate multiplications is preserved. After all additions have been performed, the accumulator is truncated to 34.15 format by discarding low 15 bits. Lastly, the accumulator is saturated to yield a result in 1.15 format.
 Parameters
S – [in] points to an instance of the Q15 FIR decimator structure
pSrc – [in] points to the block of input data
pDst – [out] points to the block of output data
blockSize – [in] number of input samples to process per call
 Returns
none

void riscv_fir_decimate_q31(const riscv_fir_decimate_instance_q31 *S, const q31_t *pSrc, q31_t *pDst, uint32_t blockSize)
Processing function for the Q31 FIR decimator.
Remark
Refer to riscv_fir_decimate_fast_q31() for a faster but less precise implementation of this function.
 Scaling and Overflow Behavior
The function is implemented using an internal 64bit accumulator. The accumulator has a 2.62 format and maintains full precision of the intermediate multiplication results but provides only a single guard bit. Thus, if the accumulator result overflows it wraps around rather than clip. In order to avoid overflows completely the input signal must be scaled down by log2(numTaps) bits (where log2 is read as log to the base 2). After all multiplyaccumulates are performed, the 2.62 accumulator is truncated to 1.32 format and then saturated to 1.31 format.
 Parameters
S – [in] points to an instance of the Q31 FIR decimator structure
pSrc – [in] points to the block of input data
pDst – [out] points to the block of output data
blockSize – [in] number of input samples to process
 Returns
none